I think if you ask any New Englander to name the top three birds at their feeder, the chickadee would be on everyone’s list. I also think that of any of the common bird calls in our forest, the chickadee’s is the one most of us could easily identify. These tiny, round birds with a black cap and bib that contrasts with its white cheeks are found all over the northern parts of the United States and up into the middle of Canada.
When not living in the suburbs you can find them in deciduous and mixed forest, almost any kind of open woodlands, as well as thickets. When we clear forests for agriculture or development, we are increasing the amount of forest edge – a habitat type that chickadees love (unlike something like an ovenbird that requires deep woods for nesting).
The black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) is one of seven species of chickadees found in the United States. They all have similar body shapes with sometimes subtle differences in color or streaking on their heads. For example, the boreal chickadee (the other New England chickadee) has a brown cap and cinnamon flanks and a more northerly range, preferring the boreal forests of Canada and the mountains of New England.
Chickadees probably do so well with humans due to their flexibility and curiosity. They are highly social birds that are quick to explore new environments and take advantage of resources (they will usually be the first bird to use a new feeder). According to the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, one study found that “every autumn black-capped chickadees allow brain neurons containing old information to die, replacing them with new neurons so they can adapt to changes in their social flocks and environment even with their tiny brains.” They really do have tiny brains, which makes their ability to memorize that much more remarkable. They often hide food for later use and can remember thousands of hiding places!
Try listening to their calls. They actually have a very complex language, much more than the obvious chickadee-dee-dee. They can communicate information about other flocks, predators and foraging information. For example, they add ”-dees” to their chickadee call to indicate higher threat levels.
From the umber that show up at my feeder every day one, wouldn’t know that we are in the middle of a mass extinction of birds. A recent Science Magazine article recently reported that there has been a 29% decline in birds in the United States over the past 50 years (that’s almost 3 billion fewer birds on the North American continent today compared to 1970!). While chickadees aren’t considered endangered, or even threatened at this point, their distribution is expected to shift and their numbers decline due to ongoing climate change. A 2017 report by Massachusetts Audubon predicted that by 2050 the black-capped chickadee population is likely to disappear from coastal areas of Massachusetts and decline substantially throughout southern New England as rising temperatures push their range to the north.
For now, if you want to attract chickadees to your backyard, provide feeders (they are one of the easiest birds to attract to a feeder), black-oil sunflower seeds and suet will do the trick, and some standing dead trees for cavity nesting sites (they also like nest boxes).
While chickadees are around all year, I think of them as winter birds. Watching them at my feeder as snow lightly falls is a wonderful way to welcome winter in New England.